I grew up on Disney’s Cinderella and Snow White. I am quite possibly the biggest Narnia fan I know…and my friends would agree. I am a big fan of Disney’s Beauty and the Beast, Tangled, and Frozen. I have greatly enjoyed the works of E. Nesbit and George MacDonald. I have watched ABC’s Once Upon a Time since it premiered, and have recently begun watching the BBC’s Merlin on Netflix. Donita K. Paul’s DragonKeeper Chronicles contain magic, as do Kendra E. Ardnek’s Bookania Quests. My love of these stories, though there have been several instances where the OUAT magic has made me uncomfortable, caused me to wonder why I was uncomfortable with writing magic. I have no problem with Narnian magic. Cinderella’s fairy godmother doesn’t make me uncomfortable. The “no right, no wrong, no rules for me” line in “Let It Go” bothers me more than Elsa’s ice powers or the creation of Olaf. But yet there is magic that makes me uncomfortable. The seer who told Rumple about his future in OUAT creeped me out (yes, the eyes in her hands was a factor, but it wasn’t the only one) and I don’t much like it when Emma uses magic, particularly under Regina’s tutelage. The question is: Why?
Does fantasy have to have magic? I have discovered the answer is no. Yes, mainstream fantasy seems to require it. However, there seems to be a growing number of non-magical fantasy books, particularly within the Christian homeschool author community. Jaye L. Knight, previously published as Molly Evangeline (my favorite author) has chosen to omit magic in her fantasies. She is not against all magic in stories, as a big fan of Tangled and Wayne Thomas Batson, but she personally chose not to write magic in the traditional sense. Miraculous happenings still occur and creatures such as dragons exist, but they are not termed magic. Nicole Sager also writes non-magical fantasy, and I have yet to encounter any magic in Claire M. Banschbach’s books. Non-magical fantasy exists, it is just not mainstream.
That begs the question: What qualifies a story as fantasy? Magic is certainly a qualification. I would say magic and the existence of the psammead are what qualify Five Children and It as fantasy. I don’t think you can really have our world fantasy without magic. If you don’t, it would be simply historical or contemporary fiction, or possibly science fiction, dystopian, or something of that sort. I believe that what qualifies non-magical fantasy as fantasy is that it is set in another world. It is entirely possible to create a fantasy world of which magic in the traditional sense is not a part. Dolennar and Ilyon are my particular favorites, though I’m sure my sister could add a few more. Even a non-magical fantasy world gives the author the freedom to use fantasy creatures. Dragons and sea serpents and centaurs and gryphons don’t have to be magical. They can perfectly well simply be natural ordinary creatures. Honestly, the physics of a fantasy world don’t even have to be the same. The sun could rise in the north and set in the south if you wanted (though that would most likely require a flat world). The world could be flat. Gravity could be skewed so that people live upside down. You could put a tropical island in the middle of the arctic. It’s still non-magical. Leaving out magic doesn’t take the creativity out of worldbuilding in the slightest degree. I personally adore mashing time periods together. Where else but a fantasy world could you have a culture that’s a mix of ancient Rome, stereotypical ante-Bellum South, and the medieval era? (One could argue that it could happen in “The Wedding of River Song” when all of history was happening at once, but that is a bit irrelevant.)
However, my story is portal fantasy. And, frankly, I don’t particularly want to give up my Narnia or Disney princess movies. So is it ever okay for there to be magic in fantasy? That was when I came across articles discussing the difference between magic in Narnia and Lord of the Rings and magic in Harry Potter.
I have never read Harry Potter, nor do I ever desire to (personal preference, it just doesn’t appeal to me). But I am unashamedly a big fan of both Narnia and LOTR. All of those stories contain magic. And the Bible clearly condemns witchcraft. I read several articles that clearly distinguished between different types of magic in stories. There are differences. What is it that makes some stories acceptable and some not acceptable? And how does it apply to my own writing? These are the things I’ve learned from those articles.
I believe the source of the magic is the most important thing to consider in writing fantasy magic. Where does this power come from? Supernatural power exists. Without a doubt. There are spiritual forces at work. And there are spiritual forces of both good and evil. Remember in Exodus 7:10-13 where Moses turned his rod into a serpent and then Pharaoh’s sorcerers did the same? It was right and good for Moses to perform this, while it was wrong for Pharaoh’s sorcerers. Why? The source. Moses did it by the power and commandment of God. The only power by which the sorcerers could have done the same was that of the devil. It’s kind of scary to think about, actually. Satan imitated the plagues God sent on Egypt. He can do that to an extent. Writing this, it really does scare me. But my point is this: Both acts would, had they happened in a fantasy story, been considered magic.
Turning a rod into a serpent. Changing water to blood. Covering a land in frogs. All magical acts if you consider them from a fantasy story standpoint. Yet Moses was allowed and even supposed to do this, while it was a terrible sin for the sorcerers. All because of the source of the power. Similarly, prophecy and healing by the power of God are right and good, while imitations of such power by the devil are pure evil. That distinguishes “good magic” from “bad magic.”
Personally, while I do not see a problem with calling this “good magic” by that name, I do not think it is necessary. You may call it what it is: a miracle. By doing so, you avoid alienating those who do not read stories with magic. But should you use the word magic, I believe it is incredibly important to define the source. Now, your bad guys will not be using God’s power for their magic. They had better not, or else you will be turning right and wrong on its head. I did choose to remove magic from Toarna’s possession, but that was because I found evil magic, even used in its proper place by the bad guys, too creepy for me to want to work with.
Who uses the magic and how it is used are also important considerations. Using magic for selfish reasons or doing evil that good may come are clearly wrong. Using any power or ability in a wrong way that good may come is wrong. And who uses it. One welcomes pitfalls for readers when a protagonist uses magic, particularly if said protagonist is learning to use magic in the text of the story. Having a mentor character like Gandalf be the one using the magic is a much better route to go. I would probably say that characters like Cinderella’s Fairy Godmother fall into this category. One might want to have a fairy godmother, but one is unlikely to try to be a fairy godmother.
It’s difficult to create magical beings or characters that use magic in a way that is compatible with Christianity. However, that doesn’t mean characters in other world fantasy have to have the exact same natural abilities as people in our world. Tolkien’s elves have amazing healing abilities. “He needs elvish medicine” can be heard in the LOTR movies. But while some other races look on the elves’ abilities as magic, it’s just a natural ability for them. Similarly, my merfolk can exchange their tails for legs and vice versa at will, but it is just a natural God-given ability for them. Magic-free fantasy doesn’t have to be devoid of interesting abilities like this.
As Time Captives is portal fantasy, and as my characters are stuck in time Tuck Everlasting style, it doesn’t feel like non-magical fantasy. However, there is no magic in the mainstream fantasy magic sense, and not even any fairy godmother magic. The portal is much the same as the Ship of Divine Purpose in Across the Stars, only instead of being a spaceship sent to those who are meant to help in other parts of the universe, it is an attic portal the clues and instructions to which only appear to those who are meant to go through it. They are stuck in time because, as Camthalion says, “God has a reason. He has a purpose for you, and He has ways of accomplishing it, even if they seem strange to us….There is no other option.”
This leads into an important point: Strict non-magical fantasy should not be devoid of the supernatural. God does miracles. He is always working, always orchestrating things in amazing ways according to His will. Non-magical fantasy writers should not go out of their way to omit anything supernatural because it might to some have the appearance of magic. To do so, leaving out miraculous working, is, I think, to deny the nature of God. Do not avoid miracles because someone might think it is magic.
Now, it has to be well done. Do not insert a miracle just to insert a miracle. I can’t give any hard and fast rules for this, but if you write prayerfully and naturally, it will happen in the right place and in the right way. A miracle happened in Across the Stars. I had written a character into a rather fatal condition, and was stuck until, after praying and thinking about it for several days, I realized it had to be a miracle. The ending of The Experiment was criticized as “deus ex machina” by my cousin, but I have had more people say the ending was perfect and it couldn’t have ended any other way. Time Captives is less about big miracles and more about God working everything together perfectly, though the theme and message are different and something that happened naturally without my realizing it. I’m not giving it away, it would be less powerful that way.
Magic in Christian fantasy is an incredibly tricky subject, and I am still learning. It doesn’t have a single answer. There are many perspectives, and many extremes. I struggled greatly with the topic in my writing, and then about my reading and TV watching. I feel like my conclusion is sort of middle ground. I encourage you to research it yourself and come to your own conclusion.
I found many articles and discussion threads (strangely without Googling) in my search for answers. Here are the ones I can remember and still find.
Magic: Harry Potter Vs. LOTR & Narnia... And What God Says About It
Harry Potter vs. Gandalf
FRODO BAGGINS VS. HARRY POTTER: A Christian perspective on fantasy literature
Holy Worlds Fantasy Forum Topic: Magic
 I personally believe that dragons were truly dinosaurs, and that it is quite possible some could have breathed fire, though legends are likely much exaggerated, but that is a different topic of discussion.
 I do not condemn anyone who chooses to stay away from Narnia and/or LOTR, nor do I condemn people simply for reading Harry Potter. Each person has to decide for him or herself what is acceptable.